A variety of minerals and chemicals are excreted in the urine and sometimes these combine to form the beginning of a stone.

A kidney stone is really a small stone, usually comprised of calcium crystals, that forms within the part of the kidney where urine collects. A kidney stone is really a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. A number of stones can be in the kidney or ureter at the same time. The stone usually causes little problem until it grouped into the ureter, the tube that drains the kidney in to the bladder, and causes an obstruction, preventing urine from draining from the kidney and often causing severe pain.

A kidney stone is really a solid piece of material that forms inside a kidney when there are high amounts of certain substances in the urine. A stone may remain in the kidney or travel on the urinary tract. Kidney stones vary in dimensions. Over time, this can grow from a hidden speck of sand into a stone that may be an inch in diameter or larger. A stone that will get stuck can block the flow of urine, causing severe pain or bleeding.

Causes of Kidney Stones

Uric Acid Stones

Uric acid stones can build in people who don’t drink enough fluids or who lose an excessive amount of fluid, those who eat a high-protein diet, and people who have gout. Certain genetics also may increase your risk of the crystals stones.

Struvite Stones

Struvite stones in many cases are caused by infections, and they most often occur after a urinary tract infection which has lasted a long time. Struvite stones tend to be more common in women than in men.

Calcium Stones

Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and many metabolic disorders can boost the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine. Calcium stones could also occur in the form of calcium phosphate.

Cystine Stones

These stones form in individuals with a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to excrete an excessive amount of certain amino acids. They are brought on by an inherited condition called cystinuria, which affects the quantity of acid that is passed inside your urine.

Test of Kidney Stones


Urinalysis is testing of the urine sample. The urine sample is collected inside a special container in a healthcare provider’s office or commercial facility and could be tested in the same location or delivered to a lab for analysis. Urinalysis can display whether the person has an infection or even the urine contains substances that form stones.


A blood test involves drawing blood in a health care provider’s office or commercial facility and sending the sample to some lab for analysis. The blood test can display biochemical problems that can lead to kidney stones.

Kidney Stones Causes

Kidney Stones Causes


Imaging tests may show kidney stones inside your urinary tract. Options range from simple abdominal X-rays, which could miss small kidney stones, to high-speed computerized tomography (CT) that could reveal even tiny stones. Other imaging options have an ultrasound, a noninvasive test, and intravenous pyelography, that involves injecting dye into your arm vein and taking X-rays as the dye travels through your kidneys and bladder.

Analysis of Passed Stones

You might be asked to urinate through a strainer to trap stones that you pass. Lab analysis will disclose the makeup of your kidney stones. Your physician uses this information to determine what’s causing your kidney stones and also to form a plan to prevent more kidney stones.